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外部字典的来源

外部字典可以从许多不同的来源连接。

如果使用xml-file配置字典,则配置如下所示:

<clickhouse>
<dictionary>
...
<source>
<source_type>
<!-- Source configuration -->
</source_type>
</source>
...
</dictionary>
...
</clickhouse>

在情况下 DDL-查询,相等的配置将看起来像:

CREATE DICTIONARY dict_name (...)
...
SOURCE(SOURCE_TYPE(param1 val1 ... paramN valN)) -- Source configuration
...

源配置在 source 科。

对于源类型 本地文件, 可执行文件, HTTP(s), ClickHouse 可选设置:

<source>
<file>
<path>/opt/dictionaries/os.tsv</path>
<format>TabSeparated</format>
</file>
<settings>
<format_csv_allow_single_quotes>0</format_csv_allow_single_quotes>
</settings>
</source>

SOURCE(FILE(path './user_files/os.tsv' format 'TabSeparated'))
SETTINGS(format_csv_allow_single_quotes = 0)

来源类型 (source_type):

本地文件

设置示例:

<source>
<file>
<path>/opt/dictionaries/os.tsv</path>
<format>TabSeparated</format>
</file>
</source>

SOURCE(FILE(path './user_files/os.tsv' format 'TabSeparated'))

设置字段:

  • path – The absolute path to the file.
  • format – The file format. All the formats described in “格式” 支持。

可执行文件

使用可执行文件取决于 字典如何存储在内存中. 如果字典存储使用 cachecomplex_key_cache,ClickHouse通过向可执行文件的STDIN发送请求来请求必要的密钥。 否则,ClickHouse将启动可执行文件并将其输出视为字典数据。

设置示例:

<source>
<executable>
<command>cat /opt/dictionaries/os.tsv</command>
<format>TabSeparated</format>
</executable>
</source>

SOURCE(EXECUTABLE(command 'cat /opt/dictionaries/os.tsv' format 'TabSeparated'))

设置字段:

  • command – The absolute path to the executable file, or the file name (if the program directory is written to PATH).
  • format – The file format. All the formats described in “格式” 支持。

Http(s)

使用HTTP(s)服务器取决于 字典如何存储在内存中. 如果字典存储使用 cachecomplex_key_cache,ClickHouse通过通过发送请求请求必要的密钥 POST 方法。

设置示例:

<source>
<http>
<url>http://[::1]/os.tsv</url>
<format>TabSeparated</format>
<credentials>
<user>user</user>
<password>password</password>
</credentials>
<headers>
<header>
<name>API-KEY</name>
<value>key</value>
</header>
</headers>
</http>
</source>

SOURCE(HTTP(
url 'http://[::1]/os.tsv'
format 'TabSeparated'
credentials(user 'user' password 'password')
headers(header(name 'API-KEY' value 'key'))
))

为了让ClickHouse访问HTTPS资源,您必须 配置openSSL 在服务器配置中。

设置字段:

  • url – The source URL.
  • format – The file format. All the formats described in “格式” 支持。
  • credentials – Basic HTTP authentication. Optional parameter.
    • user – Username required for the authentication.
    • password – Password required for the authentication.
  • headers – All custom HTTP headers entries used for the HTTP request. Optional parameter.
    • header – Single HTTP header entry.
    • name – Identifiant name used for the header send on the request.
    • value – Value set for a specific identifiant name.

ODBC

您可以使用此方法连接具有ODBC驱动程序的任何数据库。

设置示例:

<source>
<odbc>
<db>DatabaseName</db>
<table>ShemaName.TableName</table>
<connection_string>DSN=some_parameters</connection_string>
<invalidate_query>SQL_QUERY</invalidate_query>
</odbc>
</source>

SOURCE(ODBC(
db 'DatabaseName'
table 'SchemaName.TableName'
connection_string 'DSN=some_parameters'
invalidate_query 'SQL_QUERY'
))

设置字段:

  • db – Name of the database. Omit it if the database name is set in the <connection_string> 参数。
  • table – Name of the table and schema if exists.
  • connection_string – Connection string.
  • invalidate_query – Query for checking the dictionary status. Optional parameter. Read more in the section 更新字典.

ClickHouse接收来自ODBC-driver的引用符号,并将查询中的所有设置引用到driver,因此有必要根据数据库中的表名大小写设置表名。

如果您在使用Oracle时遇到编码问题,请参阅相应的 FAQ 文章.

ODBC字典功能的已知漏洞

:::info "注意"
通过ODBC驱动程序连接参数连接到数据库时 `Servername` 可以取代。 在这种情况下,值 `USERNAME` 和 `PASSWORD` 从 `odbc.ini` 被发送到远程服务器,并且可能会受到损害。

不安全使用示例

让我们为PostgreSQL配置unixODBC。 的内容 /etc/odbc.ini:

[gregtest]
Driver = /usr/lib/psqlodbca.so
Servername = localhost
PORT = 5432
DATABASE = test_db
#OPTION = 3
USERNAME = test
PASSWORD = test

如果然后进行查询,例如

SELECT * FROM odbc('DSN=gregtest;Servername=some-server.com', 'test_db');

ODBC驱动程序将发送的值 USERNAMEPASSWORDodbc.inisome-server.com.

连接Postgresql的示例

Ubuntu操作系统。

为PostgreSQL安装unixODBC和ODBC驱动程序:

$ sudo apt-get install -y unixodbc odbcinst odbc-postgresql

配置 /etc/odbc.ini (或 ~/.odbc.ini):

    [DEFAULT]
Driver = myconnection

[myconnection]
Description = PostgreSQL connection to my_db
Driver = PostgreSQL Unicode
Database = my_db
Servername = 127.0.0.1
UserName = username
Password = password
Port = 5432
Protocol = 9.3
ReadOnly = No
RowVersioning = No
ShowSystemTables = No
ConnSettings =

ClickHouse中的字典配置:

<clickhouse>
<dictionary>
<name>table_name</name>
<source>
<odbc>
<!-- You can specify the following parameters in connection_string: -->
<!-- DSN=myconnection;UID=username;PWD=password;HOST=127.0.0.1;PORT=5432;DATABASE=my_db -->
<connection_string>DSN=myconnection</connection_string>
<table>postgresql_table</table>
</odbc>
</source>
<lifetime>
<min>300</min>
<max>360</max>
</lifetime>
<layout>
<hashed/>
</layout>
<structure>
<id>
<name>id</name>
</id>
<attribute>
<name>some_column</name>
<type>UInt64</type>
<null_value>0</null_value>
</attribute>
</structure>
</dictionary>
</clickhouse>

CREATE DICTIONARY table_name (
id UInt64,
some_column UInt64 DEFAULT 0
)
PRIMARY KEY id
SOURCE(ODBC(connection_string 'DSN=myconnection' table 'postgresql_table'))
LAYOUT(HASHED())
LIFETIME(MIN 300 MAX 360)

您可能需要编辑 odbc.ini 使用驱动程序指定库的完整路径 DRIVER=/usr/local/lib/psqlodbcw.so.

连接MS SQL Server的示例

Ubuntu操作系统。

安装驱动程序: :

$ sudo apt-get install tdsodbc freetds-bin sqsh

配置驱动程序:

    $ cat /etc/freetds/freetds.conf
...

[MSSQL]
host = 192.168.56.101
port = 1433
tds version = 7.0
client charset = UTF-8

$ cat /etc/odbcinst.ini
...

[FreeTDS]
Description = FreeTDS
Driver = /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/odbc/libtdsodbc.so
Setup = /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/odbc/libtdsS.so
FileUsage = 1
UsageCount = 5

$ cat ~/.odbc.ini
...

[MSSQL]
Description = FreeTDS
Driver = FreeTDS
Servername = MSSQL
Database = test
UID = test
PWD = test
Port = 1433

在ClickHouse中配置字典:

<clickhouse>
<dictionary>
<name>test</name>
<source>
<odbc>
<table>dict</table>
<connection_string>DSN=MSSQL;UID=test;PWD=test</connection_string>
</odbc>
</source>

<lifetime>
<min>300</min>
<max>360</max>
</lifetime>

<layout>
<flat />
</layout>

<structure>
<id>
<name>k</name>
</id>
<attribute>
<name>s</name>
<type>String</type>
<null_value></null_value>
</attribute>
</structure>
</dictionary>
</clickhouse>

CREATE DICTIONARY test (
k UInt64,
s String DEFAULT ''
)
PRIMARY KEY k
SOURCE(ODBC(table 'dict' connection_string 'DSN=MSSQL;UID=test;PWD=test'))
LAYOUT(FLAT())
LIFETIME(MIN 300 MAX 360)

DBMS

Mysql

设置示例:

<source>
<mysql>
<port>3306</port>
<user>clickhouse</user>
<password>qwerty</password>
<replica>
<host>example01-1</host>
<priority>1</priority>
</replica>
<replica>
<host>example01-2</host>
<priority>1</priority>
</replica>
<db>db_name</db>
<table>table_name</table>
<where>id=10</where>
<invalidate_query>SQL_QUERY</invalidate_query>
</mysql>
</source>

SOURCE(MYSQL(
port 3306
user 'clickhouse'
password 'qwerty'
replica(host 'example01-1' priority 1)
replica(host 'example01-2' priority 1)
db 'db_name'
table 'table_name'
where 'id=10'
invalidate_query 'SQL_QUERY'
))

设置字段:

  • port – The port on the MySQL server. You can specify it for all replicas, or for each one individually (inside <replica>).

  • user – Name of the MySQL user. You can specify it for all replicas, or for each one individually (inside <replica>).

  • password – Password of the MySQL user. You can specify it for all replicas, or for each one individually (inside <replica>).

  • replica – Section of replica configurations. There can be multiple sections.

    - `replica/host` – The MySQL host.
    - `replica/priority` – The replica priority. When attempting to connect, ClickHouse traverses the replicas in order of priority. The lower the number, the higher the priority.
  • db – Name of the database.

  • table – Name of the table.

  • where – The selection criteria. The syntax for conditions is the same as for WHERE 例如,mysql中的子句, id > 10 AND id < 20. 可选参数。

  • invalidate_query – Query for checking the dictionary status. Optional parameter. Read more in the section 更新字典.

MySQL可以通过套接字在本地主机上连接。 要做到这一点,设置 hostsocket.

设置示例:

<source>
<mysql>
<host>localhost</host>
<socket>/path/to/socket/file.sock</socket>
<user>clickhouse</user>
<password>qwerty</password>
<db>db_name</db>
<table>table_name</table>
<where>id=10</where>
<invalidate_query>SQL_QUERY</invalidate_query>
</mysql>
</source>

SOURCE(MYSQL(
host 'localhost'
socket '/path/to/socket/file.sock'
user 'clickhouse'
password 'qwerty'
db 'db_name'
table 'table_name'
where 'id=10'
invalidate_query 'SQL_QUERY'
))

ClickHouse

设置示例:

<source>
<clickhouse>
<host>example01-01-1</host>
<port>9000</port>
<user>default</user>
<password></password>
<db>default</db>
<table>ids</table>
<where>id=10</where>
</clickhouse>
</source>

SOURCE(CLICKHOUSE(
host 'example01-01-1'
port 9000
user 'default'
password ''
db 'default'
table 'ids'
where 'id=10'
))

设置字段:

  • host – The ClickHouse host. If it is a local host, the query is processed without any network activity. To improve fault tolerance, you can create a 分布 表并在后续配置中输入它。
  • port – The port on the ClickHouse server.
  • user – Name of the ClickHouse user.
  • password – Password of the ClickHouse user.
  • db – Name of the database.
  • table – Name of the table.
  • where – The selection criteria. May be omitted.
  • invalidate_query – Query for checking the dictionary status. Optional parameter. Read more in the section 更新字典.

Mongodb

设置示例:

<source>
<mongodb>
<host>localhost</host>
<port>27017</port>
<user></user>
<password></password>
<db>test</db>
<collection>dictionary_source</collection>
</mongodb>
</source>

SOURCE(MONGO(
host 'localhost'
port 27017
user ''
password ''
db 'test'
collection 'dictionary_source'
))

设置字段:

  • host – The MongoDB host.
  • port – The port on the MongoDB server.
  • user – Name of the MongoDB user.
  • password – Password of the MongoDB user.
  • db – Name of the database.
  • collection – Name of the collection.

Redis

设置示例:

<source>
<redis>
<host>localhost</host>
<port>6379</port>
<storage_type>simple</storage_type>
<db_index>0</db_index>
</redis>
</source>

SOURCE(REDIS(
host 'localhost'
port 6379
storage_type 'simple'
db_index 0
))

设置字段:

  • host – The Redis host.
  • port – The port on the Redis server.
  • storage_type – The structure of internal Redis storage using for work with keys. simple 适用于简单源和散列单键源, hash_map 用于具有两个键的散列源。 不支持具有复杂键的范围源和缓存源。 可以省略,默认值为 simple.
  • db_index – The specific numeric index of Redis logical database. May be omitted, default value is 0.

原始文章