Functions for Working with Strings 

empty 

Checks whether the input string is empty.

Syntax

empty(x)

A string is considered non-empty if it contains at least one byte, even if this is a space or a null byte.

The function also works for arrays or UUID.

Arguments

Returned value

  • Returns 1 for an empty string or 0 for a non-empty string.

Type: UInt8.

Example

Query:

SELECT empty('');

Result:

┌─empty('')─┐
│         1 │
└───────────┘

notEmpty 

Checks whether the input string is non-empty.

Syntax

notEmpty(x)

A string is considered non-empty if it contains at least one byte, even if this is a space or a null byte.

The function also works for arrays or UUID.

Arguments

Returned value

  • Returns 1 for a non-empty string or 0 for an empty string string.

Type: UInt8.

Example

Query:

SELECT notEmpty('text');

Result:

┌─notEmpty('text')─┐
│                1 │
└──────────────────┘

length 

Returns the length of a string in bytes (not in characters, and not in code points).
The result type is UInt64.
The function also works for arrays.

lengthUTF8 

Returns the length of a string in Unicode code points (not in characters), assuming that the string contains a set of bytes that make up UTF-8 encoded text. If this assumption is not met, it returns some result (it does not throw an exception).
The result type is UInt64.

char_length, CHAR_LENGTH 

Returns the length of a string in Unicode code points (not in characters), assuming that the string contains a set of bytes that make up UTF-8 encoded text. If this assumption is not met, it returns some result (it does not throw an exception).
The result type is UInt64.

character_length, CHARACTER_LENGTH 

Returns the length of a string in Unicode code points (not in characters), assuming that the string contains a set of bytes that make up UTF-8 encoded text. If this assumption is not met, it returns some result (it does not throw an exception).
The result type is UInt64.

leftPad 

Pads the current string from the left with spaces or a specified string (multiple times, if needed) until the resulting string reaches the given length. Similarly to the MySQL LPAD function.

Syntax

leftPad('string', 'length'[, 'pad_string'])

Arguments

  • string — Input string that needs to be padded. String.
  • length — The length of the resulting string. UInt. If the value is less than the input string length, then the input string is returned as-is.
  • pad_string — The string to pad the input string with. String. Optional. If not specified, then the input string is padded with spaces.

Returned value

  • The resulting string of the given length.

Type: String.

Example

Query:

SELECT leftPad('abc', 7, '*'), leftPad('def', 7);

Result:

┌─leftPad('abc', 7, '*')─┬─leftPad('def', 7)─┐
│ ****abc                │     def           │
└────────────────────────┴───────────────────┘

leftPadUTF8 

Pads the current string from the left with spaces or a specified string (multiple times, if needed) until the resulting string reaches the given length. Similarly to the MySQL LPAD function. While in the leftPad function the length is measured in bytes, here in the leftPadUTF8 function it is measured in code points.

Syntax

leftPadUTF8('string','length'[, 'pad_string'])

Arguments

  • string — Input string that needs to be padded. String.
  • length — The length of the resulting string. UInt. If the value is less than the input string length, then the input string is returned as-is.
  • pad_string — The string to pad the input string with. String. Optional. If not specified, then the input string is padded with spaces.

Returned value

  • The resulting string of the given length.

Type: String.

Example

Query:

SELECT leftPadUTF8('абвг', 7, '*'), leftPadUTF8('дежз', 7);

Result:

┌─leftPadUTF8('абвг', 7, '*')─┬─leftPadUTF8('дежз', 7)─┐
│ ***абвг                     │    дежз                │
└─────────────────────────────┴────────────────────────┘

rightPad 

Pads the current string from the right with spaces or a specified string (multiple times, if needed) until the resulting string reaches the given length. Similarly to the MySQL RPAD function.

Syntax

rightPad('string', 'length'[, 'pad_string'])

Arguments

  • string — Input string that needs to be padded. String.
  • length — The length of the resulting string. UInt. If the value is less than the input string length, then the input string is returned as-is.
  • pad_string — The string to pad the input string with. String. Optional. If not specified, then the input string is padded with spaces.

Returned value

  • The resulting string of the given length.

Type: String.

Example

Query:

SELECT rightPad('abc', 7, '*'), rightPad('abc', 7);

Result:

┌─rightPad('abc', 7, '*')─┬─rightPad('abc', 7)─┐
│ abc****                 │ abc                │
└─────────────────────────┴────────────────────┘

rightPadUTF8 

Pads the current string from the right with spaces or a specified string (multiple times, if needed) until the resulting string reaches the given length. Similarly to the MySQL RPAD function. While in the rightPad function the length is measured in bytes, here in the rightPadUTF8 function it is measured in code points.

Syntax

rightPadUTF8('string','length'[, 'pad_string'])

Arguments

  • string — Input string that needs to be padded. String.
  • length — The length of the resulting string. UInt. If the value is less than the input string length, then the input string is returned as-is.
  • pad_string — The string to pad the input string with. String. Optional. If not specified, then the input string is padded with spaces.

Returned value

  • The resulting string of the given length.

Type: String.

Example

Query:

SELECT rightPadUTF8('абвг', 7, '*'), rightPadUTF8('абвг', 7);

Result:

┌─rightPadUTF8('абвг', 7, '*')─┬─rightPadUTF8('абвг', 7)─┐
│ абвг***                      │ абвг                    │
└──────────────────────────────┴─────────────────────────┘

lower, lcase 

Converts ASCII Latin symbols in a string to lowercase.

upper, ucase 

Converts ASCII Latin symbols in a string to uppercase.

lowerUTF8 

Converts a string to lowercase, assuming the string contains a set of bytes that make up a UTF-8 encoded text.
It does not detect the language. So for Turkish the result might not be exactly correct.
If the length of the UTF-8 byte sequence is different for upper and lower case of a code point, the result may be incorrect for this code point.
If the string contains a set of bytes that is not UTF-8, then the behavior is undefined.

upperUTF8 

Converts a string to uppercase, assuming the string contains a set of bytes that make up a UTF-8 encoded text.
It does not detect the language. So for Turkish the result might not be exactly correct.
If the length of the UTF-8 byte sequence is different for upper and lower case of a code point, the result may be incorrect for this code point.
If the string contains a set of bytes that is not UTF-8, then the behavior is undefined.

isValidUTF8 

Returns 1, if the set of bytes is valid UTF-8 encoded, otherwise 0.

toValidUTF8 

Replaces invalid UTF-8 characters by the (U+FFFD) character. All running in a row invalid characters are collapsed into the one replacement character.

toValidUTF8(input_string)

Arguments

  • input_string — Any set of bytes represented as the String data type object.

Returned value: Valid UTF-8 string.

Example

SELECT toValidUTF8('\x61\xF0\x80\x80\x80b');
┌─toValidUTF8('a����b')─┐
│ a�b                   │
└───────────────────────┘

tokens 

Split string into tokens using non-alpha numeric ASCII characters as separators.

Arguments

  • input_string — Any set of bytes represented as the String data type object.

Returned value

  • The resulting array of tokens from input string.

Type: Array.

Example

SELECT tokens('test1,;\\ test2,;\\ test3,;\\   test4') AS tokens;
┌─tokens────────────────────────────┐
│ ['test1','test2','test3','test4'] │
└───────────────────────────────────┘

repeat 

Repeats a string as many times as specified and concatenates the replicated values as a single string.

Alias: REPEAT.

Syntax

repeat(s, n)

Arguments

  • s — The string to repeat. String.
  • n — The number of times to repeat the string. UInt.

Returned value

The single string, which contains the string s repeated n times. If n \< 1, the function returns empty string.

Type: String.

Example

Query:

SELECT repeat('abc', 10);

Result:

┌─repeat('abc', 10)──────────────┐
│ abcabcabcabcabcabcabcabcabcabc │
└────────────────────────────────┘

reverse 

Reverses the string (as a sequence of bytes).

reverseUTF8 

Reverses a sequence of Unicode code points, assuming that the string contains a set of bytes representing a UTF-8 text. Otherwise, it does something else (it does not throw an exception).

format(pattern, s0, s1, …) 

Formatting constant pattern with the string listed in the arguments. pattern is a simplified Python format pattern. Format string contains “replacement fields” surrounded by curly braces {}. Anything that is not contained in braces is considered literal text, which is copied unchanged to the output. If you need to include a brace character in the literal text, it can be escaped by doubling: {{ and }}. Field names can be numbers (starting from zero) or empty (then they are treated as consequence numbers).

SELECT format('{1} {0} {1}', 'World', 'Hello')
┌─format('{1} {0} {1}', 'World', 'Hello')─┐
│ Hello World Hello                       │
└─────────────────────────────────────────┘
SELECT format('{} {}', 'Hello', 'World')
┌─format('{} {}', 'Hello', 'World')─┐
│ Hello World                       │
└───────────────────────────────────┘

concat 

Concatenates the strings listed in the arguments, without a separator.

Syntax

concat(s1, s2, ...)

Arguments

Values of type String or FixedString.

Returned values

Returns the String that results from concatenating the arguments.

If any of argument values is NULL, concat returns NULL.

Example

Query:

SELECT concat('Hello, ', 'World!');

Result:

┌─concat('Hello, ', 'World!')─┐
│ Hello, World!               │
└─────────────────────────────┘

concatAssumeInjective 

Same as concat, the difference is that you need to ensure that concat(s1, s2, ...) → sn is injective, it will be used for optimization of GROUP BY.

The function is named “injective” if it always returns different result for different values of arguments. In other words: different arguments never yield identical result.

Syntax

concatAssumeInjective(s1, s2, ...)

Arguments

Values of type String or FixedString.

Returned values

Returns the String that results from concatenating the arguments.

If any of argument values is NULL, concatAssumeInjective returns NULL.

Example

Input table:

CREATE TABLE key_val(`key1` String, `key2` String, `value` UInt32) ENGINE = TinyLog;
INSERT INTO key_val VALUES ('Hello, ','World',1), ('Hello, ','World',2), ('Hello, ','World!',3), ('Hello',', World!',2);
SELECT * from key_val;
┌─key1────┬─key2─────┬─value─┐
│ Hello,  │ World    │     1 │
│ Hello,  │ World    │     2 │
│ Hello,  │ World!   │     3 │
│ Hello   │ , World! │     2 │
└─────────┴──────────┴───────┘

Query:

SELECT concat(key1, key2), sum(value) FROM key_val GROUP BY concatAssumeInjective(key1, key2);

Result:

┌─concat(key1, key2)─┬─sum(value)─┐
│ Hello, World!      │          3 │
│ Hello, World!      │          2 │
│ Hello, World       │          3 │
└────────────────────┴────────────┘

substring(s, offset, length), mid(s, offset, length), substr(s, offset, length) 

Returns a substring starting with the byte from the ‘offset’ index that is ‘length’ bytes long. Character indexing starts from one (as in standard SQL). The ‘offset’ and ‘length’ arguments must be constants.

substringUTF8(s, offset, length) 

The same as ‘substring’, but for Unicode code points. Works under the assumption that the string contains a set of bytes representing a UTF-8 encoded text. If this assumption is not met, it returns some result (it does not throw an exception).

appendTrailingCharIfAbsent(s, c) 

If the ‘s’ string is non-empty and does not contain the ‘c’ character at the end, it appends the ‘c’ character to the end.

convertCharset(s, from, to) 

Returns the string ‘s’ that was converted from the encoding in ‘from’ to the encoding in ‘to’.

base64Encode(s) 

Encodes ‘s’ string into base64

Alias: TO_BASE64.

base64Decode(s) 

Decode base64-encoded string ‘s’ into original string. In case of failure raises an exception.

Alias: FROM_BASE64.

tryBase64Decode(s) 

Similar to base64Decode, but in case of error an empty string would be returned.

endsWith(s, suffix) 

Returns whether to end with the specified suffix. Returns 1 if the string ends with the specified suffix, otherwise it returns 0.

startsWith(str, prefix) 

Returns 1 whether string starts with the specified prefix, otherwise it returns 0.

SELECT startsWith('Spider-Man', 'Spi');

Returned values

  • 1, if the string starts with the specified prefix.
  • 0, if the string does not start with the specified prefix.

Example

Query:

SELECT startsWith('Hello, world!', 'He');

Result:

┌─startsWith('Hello, world!', 'He')─┐
│                                 1 │
└───────────────────────────────────┘

trim 

Removes all specified characters from the start or end of a string.
By default removes all consecutive occurrences of common whitespace (ASCII character 32) from both ends of a string.

Syntax

trim([[LEADING|TRAILING|BOTH] trim_character FROM] input_string)

Arguments

  • trim_character — Specified characters for trim. String.
  • input_string — String for trim. String.

Returned value

A string without leading and (or) trailing specified characters.

Type: String.

Example

Query:

SELECT trim(BOTH ' ()' FROM '(   Hello, world!   )');

Result:

┌─trim(BOTH ' ()' FROM '(   Hello, world!   )')─┐
│ Hello, world!                                 │
└───────────────────────────────────────────────┘

trimLeft 

Removes all consecutive occurrences of common whitespace (ASCII character 32) from the beginning of a string. It does not remove other kinds of whitespace characters (tab, no-break space, etc.).

Syntax

trimLeft(input_string)

Alias: ltrim(input_string).

Arguments

  • input_string — string to trim. String.

Returned value

A string without leading common whitespaces.

Type: String.

Example

Query:

SELECT trimLeft('     Hello, world!     ');

Result:

┌─trimLeft('     Hello, world!     ')─┐
│ Hello, world!                       │
└─────────────────────────────────────┘

trimRight 

Removes all consecutive occurrences of common whitespace (ASCII character 32) from the end of a string. It does not remove other kinds of whitespace characters (tab, no-break space, etc.).

Syntax

trimRight(input_string)

Alias: rtrim(input_string).

Arguments

  • input_string — string to trim. String.

Returned value

A string without trailing common whitespaces.

Type: String.

Example

Query:

SELECT trimRight('     Hello, world!     ');

Result:

┌─trimRight('     Hello, world!     ')─┐
│      Hello, world!                   │
└──────────────────────────────────────┘

trimBoth 

Removes all consecutive occurrences of common whitespace (ASCII character 32) from both ends of a string. It does not remove other kinds of whitespace characters (tab, no-break space, etc.).

Syntax

trimBoth(input_string)

Alias: trim(input_string).

Arguments

  • input_string — string to trim. String.

Returned value

A string without leading and trailing common whitespaces.

Type: String.

Example

Query:

SELECT trimBoth('     Hello, world!     ');

Result:

┌─trimBoth('     Hello, world!     ')─┐
│ Hello, world!                       │
└─────────────────────────────────────┘

CRC32(s) 

Returns the CRC32 checksum of a string, using CRC-32-IEEE 802.3 polynomial and initial value 0xffffffff (zlib implementation).

The result type is UInt32.

CRC32IEEE(s) 

Returns the CRC32 checksum of a string, using CRC-32-IEEE 802.3 polynomial.

The result type is UInt32.

CRC64(s) 

Returns the CRC64 checksum of a string, using CRC-64-ECMA polynomial.

The result type is UInt64.

normalizeQuery 

Replaces literals, sequences of literals and complex aliases with placeholders.

Syntax

normalizeQuery(x)

Arguments

  • x — Sequence of characters. String.

Returned value

  • Sequence of characters with placeholders.

Type: String.

Example

Query:

SELECT normalizeQuery('[1, 2, 3, x]') AS query;

Result:

┌─query────┐
│ [?.., x] │
└──────────┘

normalizedQueryHash 

Returns identical 64bit hash values without the values of literals for similar queries. It helps to analyze query log.

Syntax

normalizedQueryHash(x)

Arguments

  • x — Sequence of characters. String.

Returned value

  • Hash value.

Type: UInt64.

Example

Query:

SELECT normalizedQueryHash('SELECT 1 AS `xyz`') != normalizedQueryHash('SELECT 1 AS `abc`') AS res;

Result:

┌─res─┐
│   1 │
└─────┘

encodeXMLComponent 

Escapes characters to place string into XML text node or attribute.

The following five XML predefined entities will be replaced: <, &, >, ", '.

Syntax

encodeXMLComponent(x)

Arguments

  • x — The sequence of characters. String.

Returned value

  • The sequence of characters with escape characters.

Type: String.

Example

Query:

SELECT encodeXMLComponent('Hello, "world"!');
SELECT encodeXMLComponent('<123>');
SELECT encodeXMLComponent('&clickhouse');
SELECT encodeXMLComponent('\'foo\'');

Result:

Hello, &quot;world&quot;!
&lt;123&gt;
&amp;clickhouse
&apos;foo&apos;

decodeXMLComponent 

Replaces XML predefined entities with characters. Predefined entities are &quot; &amp; &apos; &gt; &lt;
This function also replaces numeric character references with Unicode characters. Both decimal (like &#10003;) and hexadecimal (&#x2713;) forms are supported.

Syntax

decodeXMLComponent(x)

Arguments

  • x — A sequence of characters. String.

Returned value

  • The sequence of characters after replacement.

Type: String.

Example

Query:

SELECT decodeXMLComponent('&apos;foo&apos;');
SELECT decodeXMLComponent('&lt; &#x3A3; &gt;');

Result:

'foo'
< Σ >

See Also

extractTextFromHTML 

A function to extract text from HTML or XHTML.
It does not necessarily 100% conform to any of the HTML, XML or XHTML standards, but the implementation is reasonably accurate and it is fast. The rules are the following:

  1. Comments are skipped. Example: <!-- test -->. Comment must end with -->. Nested comments are not possible.
    Note: constructions like <!--> and <!---> are not valid comments in HTML but they are skipped by other rules.
  2. CDATA is pasted verbatim. Note: CDATA is XML/XHTML specific. But it is processed for "best-effort" approach.
  3. script and style elements are removed with all their content. Note: it is assumed that closing tag cannot appear inside content. For example, in JS string literal has to be escaped like "<\/script>".
    Note: comments and CDATA are possible inside script or style - then closing tags are not searched inside CDATA. Example: <script><![CDATA[</script>]]></script>. But they are still searched inside comments. Sometimes it becomes complicated: <script>var x = "<!--"; </script> var y = "-->"; alert(x + y);</script>
    Note: script and style can be the names of XML namespaces - then they are not treated like usual script or style elements. Example: <script:a>Hello</script:a>.
    Note: whitespaces are possible after closing tag name: </script > but not before: < / script>.
  4. Other tags or tag-like elements are skipped without inner content. Example: <a>.</a>
    Note: it is expected that this HTML is illegal: <a test=">"></a>
    Note: it also skips something like tags: <>, <!---->, etc.
    Note: tag without end is skipped to the end of input: <hello
  5. HTML and XML entities are not decoded. They must be processed by separate function.
  6. Whitespaces in the text are collapsed or inserted by specific rules.
    • Whitespaces at the beginning and at the end are removed.
    • Consecutive whitespaces are collapsed.
    • But if the text is separated by other elements and there is no whitespace, it is inserted.
    • It may cause unnatural examples: Hello<b>world</b>, Hello<!-- -->world - there is no whitespace in HTML, but the function inserts it. Also consider: Hello<p>world</p>, Hello<br>world. This behavior is reasonable for data analysis, e.g. to convert HTML to a bag of words.
  7. Also note that correct handling of whitespaces requires the support of <pre></pre> and CSS display and white-space properties.

Syntax

extractTextFromHTML(x)

Arguments

Returned value

  • Extracted text.

Type: String.

Example

The first example contains several tags and a comment and also shows whitespace processing.
The second example shows CDATA and script tag processing.
In the third example text is extracted from the full HTML response received by the url function.

Query:

SELECT extractTextFromHTML(' <p> A text <i>with</i><b>tags</b>. <!-- comments --> </p> ');
SELECT extractTextFromHTML('<![CDATA[The content within <b>CDATA</b>]]> <script>alert("Script");</script>');
SELECT extractTextFromHTML(html) FROM url('http://www.donothingfor2minutes.com/', RawBLOB, 'html String');

Result:

A text with tags .
The content within <b>CDATA</b>
Do Nothing for 2 Minutes 2:00 &nbsp;

Rating: 3.3 - 26 votes

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